Interviewed experts: Cai Tongyi, member of the national food and nutrition advisory committee, he Hongju, researcher of the national vegetable Engineering Technology Research Center, fan Zhihong, associate professor of the school of food science and nutrition engineering of China Agricultural University, Li Xingmin, associate professor of the school of food science and nutrition engineering of China Agricultural University, Lin Xinying, director of the Chinese Nutrition Society and professor of the Institute of nutrition and food hygiene of Shandong University
Fu Jinru, honorary chairman of Tianjin Nutrition Society
Miao Jiaqi, consultant of Tianjin baked food and sugar products industry association
it’s better not to eat puffed and fried food
“It’s said that these snacks are not nutritious, and it’s easy to get fat if you eat too much. Every time I see those complex chemical ingredients on the label, I dare not buy them for my children.”
Fan Zhihong told the life times that when we choose a food, if the nutrition is good and the safety is slightly concerned, we can eat it selectively; However, foods with poor nutrition and low safety should not be eaten. Puffed and fried foods are typical examples.
They are mostly fried with palm oil, which has a high content of saturated fatty acids; In order to make it brittle, alum may exceed the standard; In order to make it look good, the pigment may be excessive; In order to make it fragrant, there may be too much salt and essence.
don’t buy cooked meat products that are too bright. Heat them when you go home
“Now the sauce beef and sauce elbow are brighter and better looking than before. Is this also a problem?”
Fan Zhihong believes that the biggest hidden danger of meat products is the misuse of tender meat powder, which may contain nitrite. Don’t buy meat that is too pink and bright. Normal cooked meat should be dark red. In addition, the taste of meat should not be too tender, and it is good to pull out the shredded meat.
Professor Lin Xinying said that only by steaming cooked meat for 10-15 minutes after buying it can you ensure hygiene.
don’t buy pickles at the stall
“It is said that pickled vegetables are ‘junk food’ with carcinogens such as nitrite.”
Fan Zhihong said that people have misunderstood pickles. In fact, if the management of pickled vegetables, pickled vegetables and other foods is standardized, carcinogens can be avoided. As long as you don’t buy the pickled vegetables from the vendors in the stalls, you can ensure safety if you buy them with regular packaging and QS marks. But pickled vegetables have more salt and poor nutrition, so it’s better to eat less.
dairy products: buy more pure milk and pure yogurt “the quality scandals of dairy products are one after another. I can’t tell exactly where it’s unsafe. Anyway, I just feel insecure.”
Li Xingmin told the life times that at present, the state’s supervision of dairy products is very strict, and the products sold in supermarkets are generally qualified and safe. Fan Zhihong suggested that people buy pure milk or yogurt with relatively high nutritional value, because the state has stricter supervision and more standards. Li Xingmin also said that pattern milk would add thickeners, essence and other additives, and its nutrition was not as high as pure milk.
buy fresh meat in cold storage. Good meat is impermeable and the meat filling is easy to form a ball
“The news about lean meat essence and water injected meat in the market will appear every few days. I really don’t know what meat can be eaten with peace of mind.”
Li Xingmin said that the harm of fresh meat comes from two aspects, one is drug pollution such as Clenbuterol, and the other is microbial pollution such as pathogenic bacteria. When buying meat, try to buy brand-name meat in the supermarket, which is more secure. In addition, meat in supermarkets can be sold at about 4 degrees Celsius to eliminate the harm of microbial pollution.
Fan Zhihong said that the human-made harm in the later period was mainly the problem of injecting meat, and now not only pure water is injected, but also phosphate, gum and other substances are added. When buying meat, we must pay attention to discrimination.
First of all, there should be no water seepage when cutting fresh meat; Secondly, touch the cut surface of the meat with your hand to make it slightly sticky; Finally, the minced meat should be sticky and easy to clump.
when you buy a can, the lid is slightly concave
“If a can can last for a year or a half, there must be a lot of preservatives. It’s not good for your health to eat it.”
“In fact, people misunderstand cans,” Professor Cai Tongyi said. Cans can be stored for a long time without deterioration, thanks to sealed containers and strict sterilization, which has nothing to do with preservatives.
When shopping for cans, first of all, pay attention to whether the packaging is complete, whether there is leakage, whether the can cap and bottle cap are rusted, scratched, and whether the trademark is soaked in oil. Second, do not buy “fat cans”, and it is better to have slightly concave can caps and bottle caps. Finally, pay attention to the integrity of the trademark.
buy frozen food at the bottom of the freezer
“Quick frozen food is often kept in the freezer for several months. Some dumplings are frozen and cracked, which will definitely be unsanitary.”
Fu Jinru told the life times: “compared with other fast food, fast-frozen food is relatively safe.” If it is reasonably stored at the specified temperature, the freshness is also guaranteed.
When buying quick-frozen food, first of all, pay attention not to buy it in bulk: on the one hand, you don’t know the shelf life, and on the other hand, you can’t guarantee the reliability of the manufacturer. Next, buy the one at the bottom of the freezer, where the temperature is most stable.
Again, don’t buy frozen or frosted products, which are thawed and then frozen, and the chance of being infected by microorganisms is greater. Finally, when choosing fish and meat frozen foods, if the color of the meat turns yellow, it means that the fat has deteriorated; The surface of meat should be light red, and don’t buy black and red meat.
edible vegetable oil multi choice press oil
“I used to be quite at ease with the oil, but after the gutter oil incident, I dare not eat it casually.”
Fan Zhihong said that the so-called “gutter oil” problem would not occur with brand bottled oil bought in supermarkets. Carcinogens may be found in oils and fats, which are inevitable in the refining process of vegetable oil.
When buying oil, it is better to buy pressed vegetable oil than refined vegetable oil. What we should pay more attention to is that the oil should not be too hot, and the oil should not be too much. The kitchen is the most critical link to control the safety of edible vegetable oil.
instant noodles try to eat as little as possible
“Instant noodles have preservatives, and fried noodles are unhealthy. It’s better not to eat them.”
Fan Zhihong said that no matter from which perspective, instant noodles should be eaten as little as possible. It has too few vitamins and high calories. Traditional fried instant noodles contain a lot of oil, and the oil in the oil bag also has oxidation risk. It is recommended to put only half of the oil in the oil bag.
Fu Jinru suggested: “don’t directly soak the seasoning package with the dough cake. You should first soak the dough cake, pour out the soup, and then pour the water again into the package. This will allow the fat and preservatives in the dough cake to dissolve in the first soup.”
vegetables are seasonal
“I’m most afraid of pesticide residues in vegetables. Every time I buy vegetables, I have to wash and soak them many times.”
He Hongju said that in fact, according to the spot checks every year, there are fewer and fewer agricultural residues, and the situation is getting better and better. I suggest you go to the supermarket to buy more vegetables and buy some vegetables with the label of the vegetable base.
Such vegetables are more standardized and safe in the process of planting and cultivation. In addition, eating more seasonal dishes will not only reduce pesticide residues, but also enrich nutrition, which is more beneficial to the body.
shellfish must be heated until fully cooked
“At present, rivers, lakes and seas are polluted to varying degrees, and heavy metals are one of them. Most shellfish feed on zooplankton and plants in water and sediment, and heavy metals sink in the sediment. Shellfish that eat them often will eat a lot of heavy metals.”
An unnamed aquatic expert told the life times that shellfish has the function of “biological enrichment”. It will bring heavy metal ions into the body when it eats, but it has no ability to digest and discharge them, resulting in heavy metal residues, which will “accumulate more and more” over time. Therefore, it is better not to eat shellfish in large quantities for a long time.
If you only eat some occasionally, you don’t need to worry too much about heavy metal poisoning. In addition, shellfish must be heated until fully cooked, and it is best to use steaming and boiling methods. If you want to “fry” the shells, you must fry them until all the shells are “open”. If you can’t open them naturally, you’d better not eat them.
snacks learn to distinguish natural cream and margarine
“The scientific name of margarine is hydrogenated vegetable oil, which is actually a kind of trans fat. One of the main reasons why fried food is criticized as junk food is that it contains it. In China, except for some brand chains that have high-priced natural cream cakes, the rest are basically made of margarine.”
Natural cream is several times more expensive than margarine, so it is common to use margarine in cake making. Margarine contains a lot of trans fatty acids. Long term and large consumption will increase the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes, and even hinder the intellectual development of children and induce Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, we should eat less cakes containing margarine.
Miao Jiaqi told the life times that consumers can distinguish between the two from the following points: natural cream is easy to melt, and if the cake needs to melt soon at room temperature, it should be real natural cream; If the cake stays at room temperature for most of the day without changing its shape and is not easy to melt in the mouth, it may be margarine.
In addition, the natural cream has a stronger fragrance, which is completely different from the vegetable cream blended with essence; When eating natural cream, it tastes moist and melts in the mouth, without the feeling of “pasting”. If you can’t judge, try to buy cakes without cream.
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