Speaker: Wang linghang, chief physician of infectious diseases diagnosis and treatment center of Beijing Ditan Hospital
Diarrhea is a common symptom, commonly known as “diarrhea”, but did you know that severe diarrhea may endanger health and life. Every year, about 760000 children die of diarrhea, which is the second leading cause of death of children under 5 years old. Therefore, never take this “minor disease” lightly.
What is diarrhea? Some people may defecate one to three times a day, and some people may only defecate three times a week, that is, once every other day. It is considered normal within this range. The water content of this stool is 60% ~ 80%. Diarrhea can be defined if the stool is particularly thin, exceeds the normal water content, or the number of times is more than 3 times a day, and the amount of defecation exceeds 200g per day.
What causes diarrhea? The total amount of diet and liquid secreted into the gastrointestinal cavity of normal people every day is 9 liters, of which 2 liters are from food and the other 7 liters are mainly from the liquid secreted by various glands of the whole digestive tract. So much liquid will be absorbed in different parts, of which about 5 L of liquid is absorbed in the jejunum of the small intestine, 2 L is absorbed in the ileum of the small intestine, 1.5 L is absorbed in the colon, and only 0.1 L is finally absorbed in the rectum. This also forms the liquid balance of the whole intestinal tract. Once the balance is broken, a large amount of water will be discharged, causing diarrhea.
Classification of diarrhea. From the etiology of diarrhea, it can be divided into infectious diarrhea and non infectious diarrhea. Infectious diarrhea is mainly caused by infection with viruses and bacteria. Non infectious diarrhea is mainly caused by inappropriate food, food poisoning or abdominal cold.
From the course of the disease, diarrhea can be divided into acute and chronic. Acute diarrhea refers to the whole course of less than two weeks from diarrhea to medical treatment. Chronic diarrhea means that the whole course of disease exceeds 2 months. The causes of acute diarrhea include bacterial infection, viral infection, eating raw and cold food, food poisoning, etc. for example, eating undercooked lentils may cause acute toxic diseases, eating spoiled food and drinking polluted water may cause acute diarrhea.
What should I do if I have diarrhea? 1. Take medical treatment. It is recommended to find a professional doctor in a special medical institution for treatment. 2. Oral rehydration salt: when a large amount of liquid is lost, you should supplement salt in addition to sugar to maintain blood pressure. You can take oral rehydration salt at home. 3. There is a new idea, that is, supplement zinc while replenishing fluid. Because zinc supplementation can significantly shorten the time of diarrhea and alleviate symptoms. Consult a professional doctor for specific dosage. 4. Pay attention to healthy diet. We should take food rich in fiber in an appropriate amount, supplement water, maintain a balanced nutrition, eat less and more meals, and eat less greasy food. 5. Strengthen personal hygiene and clean the anus. 6. Take a timely rest, relax and avoid staying up late. 7. Exercise regularly every day.
Strictly prevent “disease from entering from hand”. For infectious diarrhea, we should strictly prevent “disease from entering from hand”. We often say that “disease enters through the mouth”. In fact, many times it is “disease enters through the hand”. If the hand is contaminated with the contaminated things, and then contacts the mouth and nose, pathogens will invade the human body from the respiratory tract and digestive tract, causing respiratory tract infectious diseases and intestinal infectious diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to hand hygiene. After touching any suspicious contaminated articles, you must wash your hands to keep germs out. Washing hands and hands frequently can prevent 80% of diseases, reduce more than 50% of diarrhea, and 1 / 3 of respiratory diseases. It also plays an important role in preventing digestive tract diseases and skin diseases.